THE RISE OF BOLTON AS AN IMPORTANT ENGINEERING AND TEXTILE TOWN
IN EARLY 1800 ENGLAND
1. Expansion of old established hand textile trade in Bolton. Weavers attending markets in Manchester (12 miles distant) pre 1800. Bleachers experimenting with chlorine to cope with the demand for cloth. Early cotton mills. Population figures.
2. Formation of textile machinery makers in Bolton pre 1800. Designs based on Samuel Crompton of Bolton invention of the Spinning Mule 1779, this combining James Hargreaves Spinning Jenny 1764 and Richard Arkwright’s Roller Spinning 1769. Founded Lancashire cotton spinning supremacy. Coal mining on outskirts of town.
3. Mechanical engineering firms founded such as Crook and Dean, Benjamin Hick, Peter Rothwell, Dobson and Barlow, Thompson, Swift and Cole. Expansion of these firms to include steam engines based on James Watt’s beam design, whose parallel link motion, was a significant invention.
4. Transport progress from horse and cart, stagecoach and pack horses to canal and railway expansion. Bolton, Bury, Manchester canal in full use and then linked to national system at Manchester. Canal barge making locally. Bolton to Leigh railway opened in 1828 (First public railway in Lancashire). Linked to national network when Liverpool – Manchester railway, opened in 1830, expanded in the direction of Birmingham and then London. Local engineering firms made a number of locomotives for various companies.
5. Following the Enclosure of Bolton Moor in 1792 the Townships of Great and Little Bolton (divided by the River Croal) were created with separate Boards of Trustees, to overhaul the ancient Laws and Practices, and raise money to improve public facilities such as water supplies, education and general amenities to allow industry to expand relative to the rest of England. Parliamentary representation.
6. Creation of Community villages based on textiles improve workers conditions of employment. Barrow Bridge and Eagley Villages as examples, both of these are now Conservation Areas.